PhD outline [minimal]

Distance athlete's æffect on urban rhythm:
how do ultrarunners run in automatized cities?

General Objective

Researching into how people learn to manage resources/knowledge and take risks to do activities that the majority ignores. Runners of ultramarathon are not superhumans: they develop a know-how and find interest in the methods of running to an extreme extent.

Specific Objectives

- Taking into account the progressive information that a community of ultrarunners have access to and handle through specific events.
- Reviewing the impact of running styles related to injury-health, and the relationship with (or the lack of) running gear.
- Considering the motivations to run beyond a health goal (even risking life) and the mental and spiritual levels that get into motion.
- Detailing the particularities and differences of an ultramarathon event in comparison to shorter races.
- Seeking the paths of the athletes through public space as an opposite direction against standarized and massive urban rhythms, placing the general mobility as a limitation to the body and social development. - Attending to how do ultrarunners cope with the cities and spaces they live in, work and run through. It is assumed that runners and their surroundings are conditioned by the trends of massive behaviour . . . but at the same time athlete’s behaviour reshape production by making the input of new demands for new equipment, a renewal in set of mind and for nuances in ways to be in urban placements.

Research question

The above leaves the way closer to attempt a series of questions. Would it be possible then to see freeways and cities as something else than a mere containment of controlled flows? Or said in a more positive way and onto a slightly other physical direction:

Can we consider roads, paths in general, and other technological artifacts as enablers that shape human experience and social relationships? And this can even be considered as a double track proposal: How do human experiences and social relationships shape pathways, views, resources and technologies? Even if two seemingly separate sides merge to form a socio-technical assemblage, they in fact hibridize: hence the importance to rescue all agents, humans and non humans, involed with simetrical weight. The double sided view separates analitically what actually forms a network of dependencies.


ARRIETA, Ezequiel. Vegetarianismo en el debate político. Córdoba, Ed. Del autor. 2014.

BARBARINI, Tatiana A. O controle da infância = caminhos da medicalização. 2011. 192 p. Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Instituto de Filosofia e Ciências Humanas, Campinas, SP.

BECKER, H. S. & PESSIN, A. “A Dialogue on the Ideas of ‘World’ and ‘Field’ with Alain Pessin”. Sociological Forum, 21, pp. 275-86. 2006.

BOTTERO, Wendy & CROSSLEY, Nick. “Worlds, Fields and Networks: Becker, Bourdieu and the Structures of Social Relations”. Cultural Sociology 5(1) 99–119. 2011.

BRIGHENTI, Andrea. “Walled Urbs to Urban Walls – and Return? On the social life of walls” in Andrea Mubi Brighenti (ed.), The Wall and the City, Trento: professionaldreamers, 2009.

DELEUZE, G.; GUATTARI, F. Anti-Oedipus. Capitalism and Schizophrenia [1972]. University of Minnesota Press Minneapolis, Minneapolis, 2000. EDENSOR, Tim. “Defamiliarizing the Mundane Roadscape”. In Space & Culture. Vol. 6. no 2. May. 2003.

FIXX, James F. The complete book of running. Random House, New York, 1977.

GOFFMAN, Erving. Relations in public: microstudies of the public order. New York: Harper & Row, 1972.

INGOLD, Tim. “The Temporality of the Landscape”, World Archaeology, 25(2): pp. 152-174, 1993.

JUREK, Scott. Eat & Run: My Unlikely Journey to Ultramarathon Greatness. Mariner, New York, 2013.

KOSTRUBALA, Thaddeus. The joy of running. New York, Lippincott, 1976. LATHAM, Alan. “The history of a habit: jogging as a palliative to sedentariness in 1960s America”. Cultural geographies 2015, Vol. 22(1) 103–126.

LATOUR, Bruno. “How to Talk About the Body? the Normative Dimension of Science Studies”. Body & Society. 2004.

LEONARD, George. Mastery: The Keys to Success and Long-Term Fulfillment. Penguin Books, New York, 1992.

LIEBERMAN, Daniel E, etal. “Foot strike patterns and collision forces in habitually barefoot versus shod runners”. Nature. 28 January 2010. Pp. 1-6.

McDOUGALL, Christopher. Born to Run: A Hidden Tribe, Superathletes, and the Greatest Race the World Has Never Seen. Knopf, New York, 2009.

NUNES, Valmir. Segredos de um ultramaratonista. Histórias do campeão. Hemus, Brasil, 2009.

ROHÉ, Fred. The Zen of Running (1974). Pan-American, Middletown, 2000.

ROLL, Rich. Finding Ultra: Rejecting Middle Age, Becoming One of the World’s Fittest Men, and Discovering Myself. Random House, New York, 2012.

TARDE, Gabriel. Monadology and sociology [1895]. Melbourne, re.press, 2012.

YOUNG, di Eugene B. (auth.); GENOSKO, Gary (auth.); WATSON, Jannell. The Deleuze and Guattari Dictionary. Norfolk: Bloomsbury, 2013.


BENNA J.B. 2008v. Ultramarathon Man: 50 Marathons, 50 States, 50 Days. Journeyfilm. 109 min.

Charitywater. 2011v. Water changes everything. youtube. 4 mins.

Charity: water. 2012v. Rachel Beckwith’s Mom Visits Ethiopia. vimeo. 5 mins.

COEMAN, Tom. 2012v. Marathonman 365. Bull’s eye films. 52 min.

DREYER, Danny. 2004v. ChiRunning DVD: A Revolutionary Approach to Effortless, Injury-free Running. 64 mins.

DUNHAM, Jon. 2007v. Spirit of the Marathon. Calico 1880. 104 min.

EHRLICH, Judd. 2008v. Run for Your Life (I). Flatbush Pictures.

End Slavery Now. 2014v. End Slavery Now Website Relaunch. vimeo. 3 mins. Epipheo. 2010v. Do you own (stuff made by) slaves? youtube. 2 mins.

FRANKEL, Davey Frankel & LAKEW, Rasselas. 2009v. Atletu. AV Patchbay. 92 min.

HEISENBERG, Benjamin. 2010v. Der Räuber. Nikolaus Geyrhalter Filmproduktion. 101 min.

MIERKE, Ken. 2005v. Evolution running: run faster with fewer injuries. Endurance Films. 46 min.

MOLL, James. 2007v. Running the Sahara. Allentown Productions. 102 min.

RICHARDSON, Tony. 1962v. The Loneliness of the Long Distance Runner. Woodfall Film Productions. 104 min.

ROMANOV, Dr. Nicholas. 2001v. Pose Method of Running. Train with the Czar. 60 mins.

ROTHWELL, Jerry. 2012v. Town of Runners. Met Film Production. 80 min.

STEWART, Rob. 2006v. Sharkwater. SW Productions. 89 min.

STRETANSKI, David. 2010v. ChiRunning Simplified!, Efficient and Injury Free Natural Running Form Technique Video youtube (echifitness). 10 mins.

STUART, Mel. 2000v. Running on the Sun: The Badwater 135. Galaxy Entertainment. 100 min.

They're turning kids into slaves just to make cheaper sneakers
But what's the real cost?
‘Cause the sneakers don't seem that much cheaper

Why are we still paying so much for sneakers
When you got them made by little slave kids
What are your overheads?

– Flight of the Conchords